Death penalty for drug crimes: How the law changed over time

How and when Section 31A was incorporated to the Act and what all it contains
The Indian Express (India)
Tuesday, July 3, 2018

A 2012 report by Harm Reduction International, formerly known as International Harm Reduction Association, a NGO working globally on the subject of drug trafficking mentioned India as one of 33 countries that retains death penalty for drug related offences. Section 31A, NDPS Act, 1985 already has a provision of death penalty for subsequent conviction under law. First incorporated in the statute in 1989, the Section 31A was amended in 2001 introducing the death penalty for subsequent conviction. However, 13 years later, another amendment in 2014 made it optional for the judge to award the death sentence. (See also: Punjab wants death for drug traffickers)